Recent progress in speech emotion recognition (SER) technology has benefited from the use of deep learning techniques. However, expensive human annotation and difficulty in emotion database collection make it challenging for rapid deployment of SER across diverse application domains. An initialization - fine-tuning strategy help mitigate these technical challenges. In this work, we propose an initialization network that gears toward SER applications by learning the speech front-end network on a large media data col- lected in-the-wild jointly with proxy arousal-valence labels that are multimodally derived from audio and text information, termed as the Arousal-Valence Speech Front-End Network (AV-SpNET). The AV-SpNET can then be easily stacked simply with the supervised layers for the target emotion corpus of interest. We evaluate our proposed AV-SpNET on tasks of SER for two separate emotion cor- pora, the USC IEMOCAP and the NNIME database. The AV-SpNET outperforms other initialization techniques and reach the best over- all performances requiring only 75% of the in-domain annotated data. We also observe that generally, by using the AV-SpNET as front-end network, it requires as little as 50% of the fine-tuned data to surpass method based on randomly-initialized network with fine-tuning on the complete training set.
- Chih-Chuan Lu, Jeng-Lin Li, Chi-Chun Lee, "Learning an Arousal-Valence Speech Front-End Network using Media Data In-the-Wild for Emotion Recognition", in Proceedings of ACM on the Audio/Visual Emotion Challenge and Workshop (AVEC), 2018